Monument record 1504200000 - Wendover to Buckingham turnpike road

Summary

Wendover to Buckingham Trust was set up in 1721. Extended to Uxbridge in 1751 and in 1791 the turnpike was extended to Banbury via Brackley.

Protected Status/Designation

  • None recorded

Map

Type and Period (1)

  • TOLL ROAD (First mentioned, 18th Century to 19th Century - 1721 AD to 1878 AD)

Description

The Wendover to Buckingham Trust was set up in 1721. The Uxbridge to Wendover road was added in 1751 under the Wendover and Oak Lane Trust. Finally, in 1791 the turnpike was extended from Buckingham to Banbury via Brackley under the Buckingham and Brackley Turnpike Trust. It closed on 31st October, 1878. Today it is the A4020 from Uxbridge for a mile until it joins the A40: from the top of Red Hill as far as Buckingham it is the A413 and the continuation towards Brackley is the A422.
There have been several notable deviations from the original route. Coming from London, the first is a modern alteration: from the A40 at Tatling End (TQ 023 870) a dual carriageway runs alongside the old route, by-passing Chalfont St Peter and rejoining the old road N of 'The Greyhound'. The Chalfont St Peter by-pass was completed in 1966, and the southern section as far as Tatling End in 1970. In July 1824 the Bucks Chronicle announced plans for a new road at Little Missenden, between the 28th and 29th milestones, saving a furlong in length as well as straightening the road. The most recent deviation in this area is the Great Missenden by-pass of approximately two miles (SU 904 998 to SP 896 023), completed in 1960.
In 1826 the trustees approved the straightening of the road S of Winslow between the 48th and 49th milestones. In 1827 the road was straightened and shortened from Padbury Brook. Gravel for the repair of the road was obtained from pits in nearby parishes. From 1843 flint was increasingly used as it was cheaper.
There was a toll gate at Denham and at Tatling End (TQ 019872). The Chalfont St Peter gate stood at TQ 001914 opposite milestone 21. The gate at Great Missenden was N of the 32nd milestone (SP 884031). The Hampden Lane side gate seems to have been across the road to Hampden (SP 892016). A small house on this site was called 'Toll Cottage' until recently. There was a Wendover gate, evidenced by two leases.
The 1721 act empowered the trustees to set up turnpikes between Wendover and Buckingham. There was a toll gate and weighing engine at Walton but the engine was very inaccurate and a new toll house, gates and weighing engine were ordered in 1797. The gate was removed from the Walton parish boundary to the Court Farm area, by the 40th milestone, opposite Croft Road. In 1831 a new toll house and gate were built at Old Stoke Road and the weighing engine was moved to the Holman's Bridge gate which was by the 41st milestone (SP 818153).
Hogstone gate (nowadays Hoggeston) and toll house was erected after 1864. The Buckingham gate has an unbroked record of named lessees of tolls from 1789 until the closure of the trust in 1878. In 1791 the road was turnpiked from Buckingham to Brackley through the parishes of Radclive, Water Stratford and Shalstone. Buckingham Toll Cottage (SP 693340) survives in West Street. Turweston gate was at SP 600368. The toll board is still displayed in Turweston village hall.
Holman's bridge was rebuilt and widened in 1842. A new bridge at Hardwick was built in 1839 and was raised 8 or 10 feet above the level of the old one. However, in 1840 local farmers asked for the previous ford to continue for the benefit of their cattle. The bridge and ford are shown in the 1885 OS map. At Shipton the old bridge and its approaches are part of a layby and the A413 goes over a modern bridge. The bridge at Adstock was rebuilt in 1843 but by 1860 the foundations had given way and it had to be repaired. At Padbury the ford overflowed at times and an act of 1742 ordered the trustees to build a bridge, which the County would keep in repair. When the road was straightened between the 55th and 56th milestones, a new bridge had to be built. This is still visible underneath the widened main road bridge. Bourton bridge SE of Buckingham has been widened but the old structure can still be seen.
In October 1878 the toll houses, gates and materials were put up for auction. See article for more detailed information (B1).

Sources (1)

  • <1>SBC24252 Article in serial: Kathy Edmonds, Joan Elding & Joyce Mellor. 1995. 'Turnpike Roads of Buckinghamshire', In Recs of Bucks 35 pp31-48. Vol 35. pp 35, 37-40.

Location

Grid reference Centred SP 82327 10698 (45569m by 52148m) (Exact)
Civil Parish ADDINGTON, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish AYLESBURY, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish LITTLE MISSENDEN, Chiltern, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish PADBURY, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish RADCLIVE-CUM-CHACKMORE, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish STOKE MANDEVILLE, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish SWANBOURNE, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish TURWESTON, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish WATER STRATFORD, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish WEEDON, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish WENDOVER, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish WESTBURY, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish WESTON TURVILLE, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish WHITCHURCH, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish WINSLOW, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish ADSTOCK, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish BUCKINGHAM, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish AMERSHAM, Chiltern, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish CRESLOW, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish GREAT MISSENDEN, Chiltern, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish HARDWICK, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire
Civil Parish HOGGESTON, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire

Finds (0)

Related Monuments/Buildings (58)

Related Events/Activities (0)

Record last edited

May 18 2021 4:07PM

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