Prehistoric artefacts have been found by chance in Stewkley, such as Neolithic flint flakes found on ploughed fields or by footpaths. A Mesolithic flint flake was also found during stripping for the Kingsbury to Buncefield pipeline. A little Roman material has also been found; pottery on the streambed at Mursley and a possible Iron Age or early Roman spindle whorl near Walducks Farm. One crop-mark enclosure at Stewkley seen on aerial photographs cannot be closely dated but may be prehistoric or Roman. An early Saxon or Civil War cemetery is thought to exist at Pitch Green.
There is medieval ridge-and-furrow around the parish. Stewkley medieval village enclosure ditch has been surveyed at Upper and Lower Dean Farm, where there are also earthworks of a more extensive medieval village. There is also a medieval moat and fishpond at Old Leighton Farm, which was a grange, where medieval roof tile has also been found. There is another medieval moat at Nuneham Hill Field. Medieval village earthworks are also to be found at Littlecote, where there are also thirteenth century records of a watermill. Some enclosures at Lower Close are still visible as earthworks and so may be medieval. The field-name of Mill Way Field suggests the existence of a mill at some point and there are historical records to confirm this from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century.
St Michael’s church is the oldest building in the parish, with the nave, central tower and chancel dating to the twelfth century. 22 High Street South and 28 High Street North incorporate some fifteenth century cruck-trusses, though they have been altered in later centuries. Many of the other listed buildings are sixteenth to seventeenth century and timber-framed. Manor Farm is late sixteenth century and was the manor house for Stewkley. Dovecote Farm has a sixteenth century wall painting in the older wing of the house. Nineteenth century brickworks are known at Kilnholm, on the Wing Road and at Old Brick Farm. There was also a nineteenth century smock mill at South End and a pest house or infectious diseases hospital at Grange Farm.