Building record 0420801000 - STOWE SCHOOL, STOWE PARK
- Conservation Area: Stowe Conservation Area
- Listed Building (I) 1289788: THE MANSION WITH ATTACHED SERVICE RANGES (NOW NUGENT HOUSE, COBHAM HOUSE AND GRAFTON HOUSE)
- SHINE: Stowe medieval to post medieval landscape garden, medieval deserted villages of Lamport & Boycott, shrunken village of Daford, also moats, manors and fishponds, ridge and furrow earthworks & cropmarks, and areas of ancient semi natural woodland
Type and Period (3)
- (Former Type) COUNTRY HOUSE (17th Century to 19th Century - 1680 AD to 1806 AD)
- (Former Type) GREAT HOUSE (17th Century to 19th Century - 1600 AD to 1899 AD)
- PUBLIC SCHOOL (20th Century - 1900 AD to 1999 AD)
Dimensions - Width 0100 Length 0380 m
Plan Form - SUBRECTANGULAR
Grade I. Mansion of 1680 by William Cleare for Sir Richard Temple. Greatly altered and enlarged in stages until 1779, by Vanbrugh in the 1720's for Viscount Cobham, Gibbs 1740's for Lord Cobham. Work also by Leoni and Kent. South front 1771 by Thomas Pitt (Lord Camelford) based on design of Robert Adam, for Earl Temple. North front: stucco with stone portico and dressings. Roof concealed by balustraded parapet. Three storeys and basement, cornice at second floor. Eleven bays, the two end bays projecting; sash windows, architraves only to end bays. Central portico with steps and flanking stone lions. Ionic pilasters, 4 Ionic columns, design attributed to Vanbrugh or Leoni. Curved Ionic colonnades added 1771-2 by William Ride, perhaps to designs by Pitt or Lord Temple. Screen walls each side with Ionic order. c1780 by Valdre, pierced by pair of tall pedimented gateways leading to the service yards, c1744 by Kent, originally freestanding. (for gateways at right angles, see separate item). South front: ashlar, basement and one lofty storey. Balustraded parapets. Central block with 5-bay corinthian portico with steps, flanked by triple windows under semi-circular tympana. Giant corinthian pilasters each side. Lower colonnaded links, arcaded at basement level, attach centre block to two large pavilions, with giant corinthian pilasters and three bays of triple windows under semi-circular tympana. At each end, a 2-storey arcaded wing of 5 bays with blank arcading, connects to the service wings, now boarding houses, early C18, attributed to Vanbrugh. Stucco with ironstone dressings, slate roofs, eaves cornices two storeys, first floor bands. Nugent House, at the west end, has a central 5 bay block, the central bay projecting and pedimented on both sides. Five arches on the east elevation. Two bay single storey links each side. Northern block pedimented at each end, wooden cupola at east end of roof. Cobham House, at east end of Mansion is similar in design. Grafton House, attached at the east end is similar, with a basement storey faced in ironstone, central pedimented bay with arch, modern Mansard roof. Interior: North entrance hall decoration before c1732 by Kent. Oval saloon with doric columns and pantheon ceiling. c1780 by Valdre (probably based on design by G F Blondel). Music Room painted by Valdre with 'Pompeian' decoration. Library, in E. link, 7 bays with ornamental ceiling, Dining Hall, in W. link, ceiling c1750. Two easterly state rooms with late C18 ornamental ceilings. Basement: Gothic library, vestibule and staircase 1805-06 by Soane. Remains of early C19 Egyptian style entrance hall with two carved columns and frieze. First floor: Garter Room ceiling by Borra c.1760 renewed and altered 1930's. Chapel: upper part, with coffered ceiling. RCHM II p.287 MON.6 (B14).
NGR TO STOWE SCHOOL (B8).
Trial trenching and watching brief carried out in July 2003 by Oxford Archaeology during works associated with building restoration revealed a series of stone plinths parallel to the arcade on either side of the North Portico, probably the remains of a colonnade or arched arcade, built during or after the 17th century construction of the North Front, or possibly in the 18th century. Brick and stone culverts of the 19th and 20th centuries were also identified under the cobbled arcade walkway. At the South Front a clay-lined tank, possibly associated with the construction of the house, had been incorporated into deposits of made ground during the construction of the terrace in the late 18th century. Modern paths and possible bedding trenches for hedges were also found. Geophysical survey carried out in June 2003 by Northants Archaeology on behalf of Oxford Archaeology, was negative except for the west side of the steps to the South Front where anomalies interpreted as a former flower bed and radiating paths with 2 possible masonry plinths were identified (B25).
Included in English Heritage's Buildings ar Risk Registers. In 1999 described as priority D: 'Slow decay; solution agreed but not yet implemented'. In 2001-2 and 2006-9 described as priority 1 (F): 'Repair scheme in progress...' (B33, B37-39,B43,B45,B48).
Stowe School suffered bomb damage in May 1941, when every pane of glass on the South front was shattered by the blast of a bomb landing on the lawns (B40).
May 9th 1941 a stick of bombs fell onto the grounds of Stowe. The blast caused hundreds of windows to shatter. As a result the glass roof of the Assembly was blacked out. It was believed the moon reflected on the shining roof and attracted the enemy bombers. A 2nd bombing raid occurred on July 7th 1942. On this occasion the Masters and pupils were in air raid shelters (B41).
1921 sales catalogue (B42).
Conservation Area designated on 18th July 1990. See summary (B52).
Two timbers were interpretated as being from the initial 1680's phase of construction. Joints typical of late 17th century flooring indicate the SW part of the east corridor was floored. This correlates with the plan from the Huntington Library. The original staircase was removed during remodelling in c1740s-1760s. This is evidenced through sawn back prinicpal floor beams and the insertion of a new timber deck to support the flagstone floor. These timbers were significantly smaller than the original beams. (B71).
- ---SBC17422 Aerial Photograph: 04/09/76. BCM A2/11/20-22. SP\674376. Yes.
- ---SBC19945 Aerial Photograph: Northamptonshire County Council. 1994. 1994 Northants County Council oblique AP. SP685351. Yes.
- ---SBC19949 Aerial Photograph: Northamptonshire County Council. 1990. Stowe House and Gardens. SP674373. Yes.
- ---SBC19950 Aerial Photograph: Northamptonshire County Council. 1990. Stowe House and Landscaped Gardens. SP674375. Yes.
- ---SBC19951 Aerial Photograph: Northamptonshire County Council. 1990. Stowe House and Landscape Gardens. SP674373. Yes.
- ---SBC19953 Aerial Photograph: Northamptonshire County Council. 1990. Stowe landscape gardens (S lawn). SP674373. Yes.
- ---SBC19954 Aerial Photograph: Northamptonshire County Council. 1990. Stowe Landscape Gardens. SP672372. Yes.
- ---SBC19957 Aerial Photograph: Northamptonshire County Council. 1995. Stowe House, School Buildings and N lawn. SP1646/12.
- ---SBC19958 Aerial Photograph: Northamptonshire County Council. 1995. Stowe House and Park - core of designed landscape. SP675375. Yes.
- ---SBC20023 Unpublished document: English Heritage. 2001. Stowe Park, Stowe, Buckinghamshire: An Archaeological Survey by English Heritage (Survey Report).
- <1>SBC9229 Bibliographic reference: C Morris (ed). 1949. The Journeys of Celia Fiennes c1694. pp29-30.
- <2>SBC14098 Bibliographic reference: SEELEY B 1766 STOWE, A DESCRIPTION OF THE MAGNIFICENT HOUSE & GARDENS (WITH ILLUS) (ARE VARIOUS ED.
- <3>SBC16278 Bibliographic reference: VERTUE G ET AL; ENGRAVINGS IN SOC OF ANTIQUARIES RED PORTFOLIO P24.
- <4>SBC7809 Bibliographic reference: LIPSCOMB 3 PP84-108 (FULL DESCRIPTION & ILLUS OF MANSION, APARTMENTS, CONTENTS & GARDENS).
- <5>SBC14400 Bibliographic reference: SHEAHAN PP304-8 (FULL DESCRIPTION OF HOUSE, GARDEN TEMPLES &C).
- <6>SBC16094 Bibliographic reference: VCH BUCKS 4 PP229-233 (FULL DESCRIPTION, ILLUS, GROUND PLAN, MANORIAL HISTORY).
- <7>SBC11805 Bibliographic reference: PEVSNER N 1960 BUCKINGHAMSHIRE PP251-265 & ILLUS (FULL DESC, & ACCOUNT OF WORK SINCE HOUSE BECAME A.
- <8>SBC10383 Map: Ordnance Survey. 1958. OS 1958 6IN MAP. 1:10,560.
- <9>SBC16531 Bibliographic reference: WHISTLER L, GIBBON M & CLARKE G 1974 STOWE, A GUIDE TO THE GARDENS (HAS A FULL BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PP37-.
- <10>SBC2990 Bibliographic reference: CLARKE G 1976 (JULY) SLIDES OF AIR PHOTOS TAKEN JULY 1976 FROM A BALLOON SHOWING FORMER GARDEN FEATU.
- <11>SBC2991 Bibliographic reference: CLARKE G 1979 (DEC) LETTER RE ICE HOUSES (ON CAS FILE) ALSO OS 1880/5 6-INCH 1:10560 (1ST EDN).
- <12>SBC8335 Unpublished document: MEEHAN J 1988 STOWE; ELYSIAN FIELDS TREE & LEVEL SURVEY (TYPESCRIPT REPORT & MAP, FILED).
- <13>SBC16362 Bibliographic reference: WAINWRIGHT A 1989 NATIONAL TRUST ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY: STOWE (COPY, FILED).
- <14>SBC3681 Bibliographic reference: DoE. 1983. List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. pp22-23.
- <15>SBC9897 Bibliographic reference: NATTES C 1805-9 COLLECTION OF 105 SKETCHES & DRAWINGS OF STOWE (AT BCM).
- <16>SBC16364 Bibliographic reference: WAINWRIGHT A 1993 REPORTS ON THE STOWE PYRAMID, THE SAXON DEITIES & THE SOUTH FRONT (COPIES, FILED).
- <17>SBC4634 Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. 1994. REGISTER OF PARKS & GARDENS OF SPECIAL HISTORIC INTEREST IN ENGLAND: BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. Part 4.
- <19>SBC19576 Article in serial: National Trust. 2001. The National Trust Annual Archaeological Review 2000-2001. No 9. pp56.
- <25>SBC22178 Unpublished document: Oxford Archaeology. 2003. Stowe House, Stowe: Archaeological Excavation and Watching Brief Report.
- <33>SBC22671 Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. 2006. English Heritage Register of Buildings at Risk 2006. p52.
- <37>SBC19679 Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. 1999. English Heritage Register of Buildings at Risk 1999. p54.
- <38>SBC19680 Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. 2001. English Heritage Register of Buildings at Risk 2001. p57.
- <39>SBC19681 Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. 2002. English Heritage Register of Buildings at Risk 2002. p55.
- <40>SBC22801 Bibliographic reference: Pip Brimson. 2001. Buckingham at War. p32, 34.
- <41>SBC22826 Unpublished document: Amanda Pickard. 2003. Stowe in the War. p1.
- <42>SBC22853 Unpublished document: 1921. Sales catalogue of 1921 auction of Stowe Estate.
- <43>SBC22953 Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. 2007. English Heritage Register of Buildings at Risk 2007. p50.
- <45>SBC23138 Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. 2008. Heritage at Risk Register 2008. p212.
- <48>SBC23453 Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. 2009. Heritage at Risk Register 2009: South East. p28.
- <52>SBC23753 Bibliographic reference: Aylesbury Vale District Council. 2008. Stowe Conservation Area Summary.
- <71>SBC25175 Unpublished document: The JESSOP Consultancy. 2013. East Corridor, Stowe House: Historic Building Survey.
|Grid reference||SP 67472 37434 (point) (Exact)|
|Civil Parish||STOWE, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire|
Related Monuments/Buildings (11)
- Parent of: Leoni Arches, N FRONT OF MANSION, STOWE (Building) (0420801002)
- Parent of: Lodge, NW of mansion, Stowe Landscape Gardens (Building) (0420806005)
- Parent of: ORANGERY, STOWE SCHOOL (Building) (0420801001)
- Parent of: STOWE DESIGNED LANDSCAPE (G120 and GD1105) (Landscape) (0420802000)
- Parent of: STOWE PARK gasworks (Monument) (0420804000)
- Parent of: STOWE PARK Ice house (Monument) (0420803000)
- Parent of: STOWE SCHOOL CHAPEL (Building) (0420805000)
- Parent of: STOWE SCHOOL, STOWE PARK (Building) (0420806000)
- Parent of: STOWE SCHOOL, STOWE PARK (Building) (0420807000)
- Part of: STOWE Manor (Monument) (0420800000)
- Part of: STOWE VILLAGE (Monument) (0059000000)
Related Events/Activities (5)
- Event - Survey: Geophysical survey (EBC16519)
- Event - Survey: Site visit (EBC13580)
- Event - Survey: Stowe House, East Corridor, Building recording- Level 3 (Ref: STO13) (EBC18142)
- Event - Intervention: Trial trenching and watching brief (Ref: SSSE 03) (EBC16518)
- Event - Intervention: Watching brief (EBC16233)
Record last edited
Sep 12 2019 11:57AM