Monument record 0211404000 - LOT'S HOLE: medieval farmstead or stud

Summary

Medieval farmstead or stud farm found in evaluation and excavation at Lot's Hole

Protected Status/Designation

  • None recorded

Map

Type and Period (2)

  • ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • FARMSTEAD? (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)

Description

GROUP OF PARALLEL LINEAR MARKS CROSSED BY A CURVILINEAR DITCH. TO N & E ARE PROBABLE PITS. AREA TO N DESTROYED WITHOUT EXAMINATION IN 1970 BY M4 (B2-5).
PLOTTED AT 1:2500 (B3-4).
FIELDWORK/SURVEY FOR PROPOSED MAIDENHEAD FLOOD RELIEF SCHEME MADE VARIOUS FINDS INCLUDING 10 FLINT IMPLEMENTS, 95 FLINT DEBITAGE, 906 (24.20KG) FIRE-CRACKED FLINTS, PLUS 8 PREHISTORIC/SAXON SHERDS, 9 ROMAN SHERDS, 76 MEDIEVAL SHERDS, 29 UNCERTAIN SHERDS. THE MEDIEVAL POTTERY FORMED A DENSE CLUSTER. SITE LIKELY TO BE SAXON, BUT DEPENDS ON IDENTIFICATION OF GRASS-TEMPERED SHERDS. To the south of the site more scatters of fire cracked flint, Roman pottery and a ring made of copper alloy were found (B6-7).
Geophysical surveys by Batlett Clark Consultancy in 1990 identified a few pit-like anomalies and possible linear features (B13).
The area excavation carried out by Oxford Archaeology at Lot's Hole covered some 80x x 250m. One pit contained Neolithic pottery and an assemblage of struck flints and charred plant remains. A sherd of Peterborough ware was recovered from a tree throw. A single badly disturbed cremation was also discovered in a circular pit containing a small quantity of bone, charcoal and flint. There was no associated pottery. There were a considerable number of pits and postholes containing a considerable amount of pottery from the Bronze Age and a copper alloy pin. The Saxon phase of activity consisted of pits containing pottery from the 6th to 11th century. The pits ranged in size from 7m to 4.4m wide x 1.6m deep to 1.6m diameter x 0.33m deep. The fills did not suggest domestic storage, rather their use was for cess. The pits are concentrated in the SE quadrant of the site and have been dated by the organic tempered pottery they contained. A third phase of activity on the site relates to the construction of an E-W aligned boundary. A series of rectangular buildings were noted by the presence of post holes and beam slots. An enclosure ditch and droveway defined by ditches was also noted. The site would appear to have been deserted in the mid 13th century (B9).
The evidence suggests a modest medieval settlement in existence for approximately 150 years. The start of occupation placed in the 11th century is suggested for the presence of the five fairly common Saxo-Norman pottery fabrics. After the settlement was abandoned in the 13th century, the landscape evidence suggest that the layout of rectangular fields was maintained or echoed until 1812 (evidence = estate map). The droveway may be a legacy of the Roman farmstead on the site. The large circular enclosure was established in the late 12th/early 13th centuries with initially just a waterhole inside. The buildings and associated rubbish pits are outside. In the late 12th century the enclosure was enlarged with some buildings now being inside . Those outside are aligned NE suggesting that the circular enclosure may have been incorporated into a rectilinear land division. By the late 14th century the curved enclosure had been abandoned for the rectilinear field system. Thirteen distinct buildings or structures are identifiable by postholes and/or beam slots. No evidence of surviving floor surfaces was found or coherent hearths. Constructional details appear to identify the buildings with the phases of the site, however building functions were not easily identifiable. The artefactual evidence is consistent with a contact with regional centres such as Windsor. The animal bone assemblage contains the three domestic species - cattle, sheep and pigs, with a slight emphasis on pigs possibly due to the proximity of woodland. The lack of horse and deer bone is consistent with apparently low status. However, the Domesday book notes a horse pasture at Dorney, and in the 14th century reference is made to a stud farm. This may give a clue to the buildings - a timber framed sill beam hall, barn or animal shelter based on earthfast posts and lacking internal ridge or aisle posts, plus agricultural buildings for grain and fooder storage. No evidence for significant activity in the later medieval or post-med period was noted (B12).

Sources (10)

  • ---SBC17938 Aerial Photograph: 17/06/57. CUC VF 56. SU\922801. Yes. Yes.
  • <2>SBC5575 Bibliographic reference: GATES T 1975 MIDDLE THAMES VALLEY P47..
  • <3>SBC3478 Graphic material: Denise Allen (BCM). 1979. AP PLOT AT 1:2500 (PAPER STRIP METHOD)(FILED).
  • <4>SBC2399 Unpublished document: Buckinghamshire County Museum Archaeological Service. 1986. The Dorney Study: An Archaeological Implications Report.
  • <5>SBC2474 Unpublished document: CAS CARD 2114.
  • <6>SBC6512 Unpublished document: Buckinghamshire County Museum Archaeological Service. 1990. MAIDENHEAD, WINDSOR & ETON FLOOD ALLEVIATION SCHEME: A STUDY OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS: REPORTS 1 & 2.
  • <7>SBC23793 Unpublished document: Thames Valley Archaeological Service. 1991. Maidenhead, Windsor and Eton Flood Alleviation Scheme: Archaeological Evaluation Stage 3 1991. pp9-11.
  • <9>SBC19098 Unpublished document: Oxford Archaeological Unit. 1997. Maidenhead, Windsor and Eton Flood Alleviation Scheme Post-Ex Assessment and Updated Project Design: Lot's Hole.
  • <12>SBC19799 Monograph: Stuart Foreman, Jonathan Hiller and David Petts et al. 2002. Gathering the people, settling the land: the archaeology of a middle Thames landscape.
  • <13>SBC23792 Unpublished document: Bartlett-Clark Consultancy. 1990. Maidenhead, Windsor and Eton Flood Alleviation Scheme: Report of Archaeogeophysical Evaluation. p2;Appendix;Fig 3.

Location

Grid reference Centred SU 9219 7971 (64m by 55m) (Centred on)
Civil Parish DORNEY, South Bucks, Buckinghamshire

Finds (3)

  • SHERD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SHERD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHERD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Related Monuments/Buildings (6)

Related Events/Activities (6)

  • Event - Survey: Aerial photography (EBC1189)
  • Event - Survey: Desk-based Assessment and Fieldwalking (EBC1054)
  • Event - Intervention: Evaluation trial trenching, test pitting and auger surveys (EBC10294)
  • Event - Intervention: Excavations along the line of the Maidenhead, Windsor and Eton Flood Eleviation Scheme (EBC16348)
  • Event - Survey: Geophysical surveys (EBC17416)
  • Event - Intervention: Investigations for Maidenhead, Windsor and Eton Flood Alleviation Scheme (EBC16358)

Record last edited

Jul 20 2011 1:10PM

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