Monument record 0001600000 - CHOLESBURY CAMP
- Ancient Monument 1015585: LARGE MULTIVALLATE HILLFORT KNOWN AS CHOLESBURY CAMP
- Planning Notification Area: Earthworks of Prehistoric hillfort and Medieval parish church of St Lawrence, Cholesbury
Type and Period (1)
- MULTIVALLATE HILLFORT (Late Iron Age - 100 BC to 42 AD)
Dimensions - Length 265m, Width 190m.
Plan Form - Oval.
Site defended on E by triple rampart & double ditch & on remaining sides by double rampart & single ditch. Ramparts are c.13m wide & c.3m high on W to c.3.8m high on SE. Ditches 1-4m deep, 10-16m wide. Small triangular outwork projects from W. Excavation: see CAS 0001601000 (B1-12).
Scheduled Monument No. 27161 (B10).
Trial excavation and watching brief at the village hall failed to find any trace of outer ditch to the south (B15).
Watching brief during excavation of fence post holes - no significant archaeology disturbed (B16).
Geophysical surveys carried out in July 2000 in interior of hillfort indicated extensive activity, possibly concentrated in the western half of the site. In the western part of the site, one of the hearths (H2) excavated by Kimball was identified, along with 3 circular anomalies, possibly prehistoric roundhouses, several rectangular anomalies and a large square anomaly, which it is suggested represent remains of medieval settlement, possibly manorial. In the northeastern part of the site 2 further circular anomalies and 4 subrectangular anomalies, at least one of which seems to lie within an enclosure and appeared to be subdivided, were also identified as possible prehistoric roundhouses and traces of medieval settlement (B17-18).
Negative watching briefs (B19-21,B23).
Evaluation trial trenching carried out by AS&C in August 2002 in advance of house extension found the inner edge of the hillfort ditch. The upper ditch fills (excavated to a depth of 1.2m only) contained 19th century building debris and residual finds of medieval pottery. See report for detail (B22).
Included in Historic England's Heritage at Risk Register in 2021 and 2022. Condition described as 'extensive significant problems' with the principal vulnerability being from scrub/tree growth and the trend as declining (B25-26).
- <1>SBC7750 Bibliographic reference: LIPSCOMB 3 PP314-315.
- <2>SBC486 Article in serial: ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL 14 1957 PP273-275 (PLAN).
- <3>SBC20350 Bibliographic reference: A Hadrian Allcroft. 1908. Earthwork of England. pp48, 134-135, 153, Fig.
- <4>SBC12756 Bibliographic reference: RCHM BUCKS 1 PP106-107 (PLAN).
- <5>SBC20461 Bibliographic reference: William Page (ed). 1908. A History of Buckinghamshire (Victoria County History) Volume II. Volume 2. pp22-24, Plan.
- <6>SBC7096 Article in serial: D Kimball. 1933. 'CHOLESBURY CAMP', IN BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION JNL 39 PP187-212. Vol 39.
- <7>SBC967 Bibliographic reference: BCM ACCESSIONS REGISTER 1948-53, 1979 (RE-ACCESSIONED).
- <8>SBC6308 Bibliographic reference: HEAD J F 1955 EARLY MAN IN SOUTH BUCKS PP72,75-76, 149.
- <9>SBC10852 Bibliographic reference: OS RECORD CARD SP 90 NW 03 (PLAN).
- <10>SBC13927 Scheduling record: English Heritage. 1997. SCHEDULING LIST OF INSPECTORATE OF ANCIENT MONUMENTS (REPORT, FILED) SAM (BUCKS) NO.1/SCHEDULING REV.
- <11>SBC4449 Article in serial: James Dyer. 1976. 'A FUTURE FOR PREHISTORY IN THE CHILTERNS', IN CBA GROUP 9 NEWSLETTER 6 P7. No 6.
- <12>SBC13884 Bibliographic reference: SAUNDERS C 1971 THE PRE-BELGIC IRON AGE IN THE CENTRAL AND WESTERN CHIL-TERNS IN ARCHAEOLOGICALJNL12.
- <13>SBC884 Unpublished document: Buckinghamshire County Museum. 1992. AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVALUATION AT MOAT HOUSE, CHOLESBURY.
- <14>SBC14650 Unpublished document: Buckinghamshire County Museum Archaeological Service. 1997. A Watching Brief at Overburnts, Cholesbury Hillfort.
- <15>SBC19076 Unpublished document: Buckinghamshire County Museum Archaeological Service. 1997. Archaeological Recording at Cholesbury Village Hall, Cholesbury.
- <16>SBC19096 Unpublished document: Michael Farley Archaeology. 1999. A Watching Brief at Cholesbury Hillfort, Bucks..
- <17>SBC19697 Unpublished document: John Gover. 2001. A Geophysical Survey of Cholesbury Camp.
- <18>SBC20249 Article in serial: Chess Valley Archaeological and Historical Society. 2002. Journal of the Chess Valley Archaeological and Historical Society 2002. pp8-10.
- <19>SBC22121 Unpublished document: Archaeological Services & Consultancy Ltd. 2004. Enhanced Watching Brief: Moat House, Cholesbury.
- <20>SBC22221 Unpublished document: Archaeological Services & Consultancy Ltd. 2004. Watching Brief on Land to the Rear of Overburnts, Cholesbury.
- <21>SBC22868 Unpublished document: Thames Valley Archaeological Services. 2007. Cholesbury New House, Parrots Lane, Cholesbury: An Archaeological Watching Brief.
- <22>SBC19721 Unpublished document: Archaeological Services & Consultancy Ltd. 2002. An Archaeological Evaluation at The Old Vicarage, Cholesbury.
- <23>SBC24756 Unpublished document: MOLA Northampton. 2016. Archaeological Observation, Investigation and Recording of Land at The Old Manor House, Cholesbury Lane, Cholesbury.
- <24>SBC25485 Unpublished document: Buckinghamshire Archaeological Society. 2016. Beside the Boundary of Cholesbury Camp: Geophysical Survey Report.
- <25>SBC25511 Digital archive: Historic England. 2021. Heritage at Risk Register 2021.
- <26>SBC25896 Digital archive: Historic England. 2022. Heritage at Risk Register 2022.
|Grid reference||SP 493e+ 2072e (point)|
|Civil Parish||CHOLESBURY-CUM-ST. LEONARDS, Chiltern, Buckinghamshire|
Related Monuments/Buildings (4)
Related Events/Activities (9)
- Event - Intervention: (EBC12265)
- Event - Intervention: Evaluation trial trenching (Ref: OVC 02) (EBC16076)
- Event - Intervention: Excavation (EBC12303)
- Event - Survey: Geophysical survey (EBC16064)
- Event - Intervention: Trial trench and watching brief (EBC15954)
- Event - Intervention: Watching brief (EBC15955)
- Event - Intervention: Watching brief (EBC17835)
- Event - Intervention: Watching brief (Ref: CMH 04) (EBC16458)
- Event - Intervention: Watching brief (Ref: PLC 06/135) (EBC16797)
Record last edited
Nov 14 2023 9:36AM