Building record 0202201000 - CLAYDON HOUSE

Summary

Originally a sixteenth century manor house with much alteration in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

Protected Status/Designation

  • Listed Building (I) 1288461: CLAYDON HOUSE

Map

Type and Period (2)

  • COUNTRY HOUSE (16th Century to Modern - 1500 AD to 1999 AD) + Sci.Date
  • MANOR HOUSE (16th Century to 19th Century - 1500 AD to 1899 AD)

Description

Dimensions - Length 0051 m Width 0024
Plan Form - H SHAPED
Grade I. Mansion. W. wing containing state rooms built late 1760s-early 1770s for Ralph, second Earl Verney. Luke Lightfoot in charge of work until 1769, with intervention of Sir Thomas Robinson 1768- 1771. Remainder of house to rear is mid C18 remodelling of older building with S. front altered 1860s. Classical W. wing is of ashlar with plain sill course to ground floor, quoins and moulded cornice with modillions. Slate roof, ashlar chimneys. Barred sash windows in architrave surrounds. 2 storeys. W. front of 7 bays, 3 to centre slightly projecting and pedimented with shallow recessed arch over ground floor windows. Centre of ground floor has Serlian window with rusticated blocks over central arch and Doric jambs. Flanking ground floor windows have pulvinated friezes and pediments, segmental to end bays. Outer bays have bullseye windows between storeys, those to right blind and painted. Central first floor window has lugged architrave. Small round window in pediment above. N. front, altered 1790s, has 5 bays with alternating segmental and triangular pediments to ground floor windows, those in bays 2 and 3 with double doors. S. front of 3 bays is of header bond red brick with plain parapet and stone sill course and window architraves. Remainder of house: 3 storeys and basement. N. and part of E. fronts are of mid C18 brick with vitreous headers, red dressings and gauged heads to windows. Plain parapet, brick band courses. Barred sash windows, some round headed with intersecting glazing bars, some Serlian. C19 tower to right of N. front, C19 S. front of red brick with stone architraves to sash windows and 2 full-height canted bay windows with stone mullions and transoms. Interior: older part of house has C17 fireplace in ground floor. S.E. room, early C18 bolection panelling in entrance hall and C17 panelling with carved frieze re-sited in second floor room. The W. wing has exceptionally fine examples of contemporary decoration. The first floor rooms, North Hall and Pink Parlour have extravagant Rococo decoration with scrolls, foliage, birds and exotic motifs in carved wood by Lightfoot, carved marble fireplaces and 6 or 8-panel mahogany doors with mouldings. The North Hall and the Gothic and Chinese Rooms are especially impressive; the latter with pagoda-like alcove and doorcases. The Saloon and Library were decorated under the direction of Sir Thomas Robinson with heavily classical wooden doorcases, marble fireplaces and elaborate plaster ceilings in the style of Robert Adam by Joseph Rose. Fine staircase with inlaid treads, risers, handrail, landings and soffits, carved string, and delicate wrought iron balustrade of scroll work with ears of wheat. Above is a glazed oval dome with carved frieze of sea creatures. The W. wing is the surviving part of a larger scheme, the house formerly extending to the north with a central rotunda and matching ballroom wing designed by Robinson and demolished 1792. (National Trust Guide. Country Life: October 24th, 31st and November 7th 1952. RCHM II p. 198-9. Mon.2.)(B6).
(DESCRIPTION, ELEVATIONS, GROUND PLAN)(B1).
ORIGINAL HOUSE WHICH NOW FORMS EAST WING IS KNOWN TO BE OF TUDOR ORIGIN, FIVE GABLED BAYS, SOUTH FRONT WITH CROW GABLES & MULLIONED WINDOWS, THE NORTH WITH CASEMENTS IN BAROQUE ENTABLATURES. ALTERED 1620 BY SIR EDMUND. SIR RALPH ERECTED GEORGIAN BRICK BUILDING AT SAME TIME AS BUILT STABLES 1754. REMODELLED C19TH ARCHITECT MAY HAVE BEEN SIR GILBERT SCOTT (B2-5).
C19TH WATER TOWER. WEST WING,WITH STATE ROOMS,BUILT 1760'S-70'S POSSIBLY BY LUKE LIGHTFOOT. 1769-1771 EXTENDED TO NORTH, WITH LARGE CIRCULAR HALL DESIGNED BY SIR THOMAS ROBINSON. THE EXTENSION SUFFERED FROM STRUCTURAL FAULTS AND WAS PULLED DOWN BY LADY FERMANAGH IN 1791. THE REMAINING WEST WING IS TWO STOREYED AND HAS SEVEN BAYS. CLUNCH ASHLAR. GROUND FLOOR VENETIAN WINDOW, OUTER BAYS WITH BULLSEYE WINDOWS, OTHER TALL AND SLASHED WINDOWS. HIPPED SLATED ROOF WITH ASHLAR CHIMNEY STACKS. HAS ROCOCO DESIGNS OF SCROLLS, FOLIAGE, FLOWERS, FRUIT, BIRDS & BEAST. PLASTER WORK BY JOSEPH ROSE. INLAID STAIRWAY BY LIGHTFOOT DECORATED BY ROSE. OVAL DOME OF CARVED WOOD FREIZES OF SEA CREATURES BY LIGHTFOOT (B9).
NGR (B7).
Dendro-dating obtains a felling date of 1757 for timber beams from the first floor. A re-used moulded beam with a felling date after 1482, was possibly not felled until the 16th century or even later. No evidence was found for any in-situ Tudor elements. See AM Lab report for detail (B8,B20).
CRACKS HAVE BEGUN TO APPEAR IN THE SOUTH WALL OF THE LIBRARY, TRENCHES DUG IN 1997 TO INVESTIGATE ITS CAUSE WITH ASSESSMENT OF THE CULVERT AND MAKE-UP OF THE GROUND AROUND AND BENEATH THE SOUTH WALL. THE CLAYS AND GRAVEL LAYERS OVERLYING THE CULVERT WERE FOUND TO CONTINUE BENEATH THE FOOTINGS OF THE SOUTH WALL, SUGGESTING THAT THE CULVERT IS A SLIGHTLY EARLIER STRUCTURE. THE SOUTH WALL IS OF SHALLOW STONE FOOTINGS AND THIS MAY BE THE MAIN REASON FOR THE CRACKING (B11). EXCAVATION IN DECEMBER 1997, AFTER CONTRACTORS DISCOVERED THE FOOTINGS OF THE C18TH ROTUNDA. DISCOVERED L-SHAPED STRUCTURE WITH TO BRICK FACES (B12). MARCH 1998 OBSERVATIONS MADE IN GROUND FLOOR ROOM G20 WHILST BEING REDECORATED. REMOVAL OF WALLPAPER REVEALED TIMBER PANELLING (B13). EXCAVATION IN 1996 TO EXAMINE AND REPAIR THE BRICK CULVERTS FORMING THE SEWER SYSTEM. A MORTARED BRICK BASE AND THE BRICK FOOTINGS OF THE ROTUNDA WERE DISCOVERED (B14).
WATCHING BRIEF, 1995, DURING WORK TO BRING THE SERVICES UP TO MODERN STANDARDS IN THE MAIN PART OF THE BUILDING OCCUPIED BY THE VERNEY FAMILY. UNCOVERED ALTERATIONS BY SIR GILBERT SCOTTc1860 (B15). GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, JULY 1998, PRE-WORK FOR THE WATER PIPELINE, PLOTED THE COURSE OF THE OLD DRIVE AROUND THE NORTH END OF THE BALLROOM TO PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE STABLES. WATCHING BRIEF OVER THE WORK FOR THE WATER PIPELINE DISCOVERED THE BRICK CULVERT, FOOTINGS FOR THE BALL ROOM AND THE SOUTH-EAST CORNER OF THE ROTUNDA (B16,B18).
WATCHING BRIEF OVER PHASE III WORKS SUGGESTING THAT PARTS OF THE 16TH/17TH CENTURY HOUSE REMAIN ENCAPSULATED WITHIN THE SUBSEQUENT REBUILDING OF THE MID C18TH. EVIDENCE FOR THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE C18TH HOUSE REMAINS BENEATH THE FLOORS AND WALLS INTRODUCED AS PART OF THE ALTERATIONS OF THE 1850'S AND 1860'S (B17).

Sources (19)

  • <1>SBC7486 Bibliographic reference: LIPSCOMB 1 P197.
  • <2>SBC13062 Bibliographic reference: RCHM BUCKS 2 PP198-199.
  • <3>SBC16135 Bibliographic reference: VCH BUCKS 4 PP32-33.
  • <4>SBC11794 Bibliographic reference: PEVSNER N 1960 BUCKINGHAMSHIRE PP206-209 & PLATES 52-55.
  • <5>SBC9892 Bibliographic reference: NATIONAL TRUST 1981 CLAYDON HOUSE (COPY FILED).
  • <6>SBC3775 Bibliographic reference: DoE. 1984. LIST OF BUILDINGS OF SPECIAL ARCHITECTURAL OR HISTORIC INTEREST. p32.
  • <7>SBC10473 Map: OS 1977 1:2500 MAP.
  • <8>SBC15187 Unpublished document: I Tyers. 1995. TREE RING ANALYSIS OF CLAYDON HOUSE, MIDDLE CLAYDON.
  • <8>SBC4637 Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. 1994. Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England: Buckinghamshire. Part 4.
  • <10>SBC19071 Unpublished document: National Trust. 1992. Archaeological Survey: Claydon House.
  • <11>SBC19766 Article in serial: Gary Marshall (National Trust). 1998. Annual fieldwork summary for National Trust in 1998, in South Midlands Archaeology vol 28.
  • <12>SBC19769 Unpublished document: Gary Marshall (National Trust). 1998. Claydon House: Archaeological report covering observations made in room G20.
  • <13>SBC19768 Unpublished document: Gary Marshall (National Trust). 1998. Claydon House: Archaeological report on the excavation of trench 11 on the north-west corner of the House.
  • <14>SBC19770 Article in serial: CBA South Midlands Group. 1997. South Midlands Archaeology 27, 1997.
  • <16>SBC19772 Unpublished document: Gary Marshall (National Trust). 1998. Claydon House: Archaeological watching brief on the excavation of trenches 12 and 13.
  • <17>SBC19773 Unpublished document: National Trust. 1997. Claydon House Archaeological Report: Phase III Watching Brief.
  • <18>SBC19209 Bibliographic reference: National Trust. 1999. Annual Archeological Review No. 7 1998-99. p46.
  • <19>SBC19717 Article in serial: CBA South Midlands Group. 1995. South Midlands Archaeology 25, 1995. No 25.
  • <20>SBC22686 Digital archive: Vernacular Architecture Group. 2000 onwards. Vernacular Architecture Group: Dendrochronology Database. VA vol 28 p139.

Location

Grid reference SP 71930 25330 (point) (Exact)
Civil Parish MIDDLE CLAYDON, Aylesbury Vale, Buckinghamshire

Finds (0)

Related Monuments/Buildings (1)

Related Events/Activities (8)

  • Event - Intervention: Excavation (EBC16119)
  • Event - Interpretation: NATIONAL TRUST ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY (EBC16107)
  • Event - Intervention: NATIONAL TRUST EXCAVATION.TRENCHES 3 &4. (EBC16120)
  • Event - Survey: OBSERVATIONS IN ROOM G20 DURING REDECORATION (EBC16118)
  • Event - Survey: Site visit (EBC13589)
  • Event - Intervention: THE NATIONAL TRUST, PHASE III WATCHING BRIEF (EBC16123)
  • Event - Interpretation: WATCHING BRIEF DURING MODERNISATION OF SERVICES (EBC16121)
  • Event - Intervention: WATCHING BRIEF FOR WORK ON WATER PIPELINE. (Ref: Clay/4) (EBC16122)

Record last edited

Sep 10 2009 7:36PM

Comments and Feedback

Do you have any questions or more information about this record? Please feel free to comment below with your name and email address. All comments are submitted to the Heritage Portal maintainers for moderation, and we aim to respond/publish as soon as possible. Comments, questions and answers that may be helpful to other users will be retained and displayed along with the name you supply. The email address you supply will never be displayed or shared.